Design and testing of a new generation of Pour Point Depressants
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- Konfidensielt 
The extraction of waxy crude oils offers challenges in the oil and gas industry. The incorporation of chemical products known as wax inhibitors and pour point depressants reduce the pour point and viscosity of the oil, and thereby facilitate the extraction of these types of crude oils. This present work introduces hyperbranched polyesters as effective flow improvers. Hyperbranched polyesters were prepared using the Boltorn H30 and the Boltorn H40 dendritic cores and different compositions of fatty acid chains namely: palmitc, stearic and behenic acid. The efficiency of these hyperbranched polyesters was tested for rheological behaviour on two North Sea crude oils, Fram East and Fram West. Synthesized polyesters and both crude oils were analysed to be able to confirm the polyesters, and compare them to the hydrocarbon chain lengths of the wax. Six selected polyesters were also tested on a third North Sea crude oil, Glitne. For the seven polyesters based on Boltorn H30 cores, the percentage of inhibition was tested, by the cold finger method. It was observed that the hyperbranched polymer coded CdId 633, exhibit flow improving properties that can reduce temperatures with more than 8 °C at 200 ppm concentration for some crude oils. All Boltorn H30 polyesters decrease deposition compared to incumbent product at a concentration of 1000 ppm in the cold finger test. Three out of seven synthesized polyesters show over 80% inhibition at this concentration. It was also observed that core size of the dendrimer, length, and fatty acid ratio is an important factor for wax inhibition. It has also been confirmed, as it is stated in the theory, that other components in the crude oil as well as wax composition, has a great influence on the rheological behaviour of the crude oil, with and without chemical additives.
Master's thesis in Environmental technology *KAR OK KONF juli 2019 / IP*
PublisherUniversity of Stavanger, Norway