Exploring the Use of Non-target Languages in English Language Classrooms in Norway
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- Student papers (HF-IKS) 
This thesis enquires into what teachers do in accordance with using non-target languages in an English classroom in Norwegian upper secondary schools. A further aspiration is to learn how teachers understand the New Knowledge Promotion 2020, which was partially implemented at the start of the school year, August 2020. The study focused on one aim in particular which reads that "the pupil is expected to be able to use knowledge of similarities between English and other languages he or she knows in language learning" (UDIR, 2020a). Moreover, the present thesis also aims to learn a bit more of what teachers believe about language use and to see if that impacts their practice in class. Based on a qualitative research method, the data was collected through online interviews with six upper secondary school teachers in Norway. The interviews took place in January 2021 and audio recordings of the interviews, transcriptions and field notes were used to collect the data. It was required for the participants to have started implementing LK20 in their classes. The teachers in this study come from different upper secondary schools in Norway, and all but one teach vocational English. Many of the participating teachers teach adult classes as well as classes with teenagers. This brought to light several new elements to the discussion which would be interesting for further research. The present paper found that almost all teachers implement non-target languages. The most common example given from the teachers was the use of Norwegian which they used in order to ensure understanding either by translating words or explaining tasks. The study found that there is a need to make teachers more aware of translanguaging practices which is a practice of using your whole linguistic repertoire when learning and producing the target language. Some teachers said that they do not allow other languages other than English and Norwegian, and that they do not know what to do to implement the new competence aim. The study found that there was a general misunderstanding and feeling a lack of guidance as to how to work with this aim. Comments about new coursebooks arriving late and not discussing this specific aim at their workplace were also made. To the researcher's knowledge, very little research has been done in the field of translanguaging practices in Norwegian schools. Therefore, the thesis aims to contribute to the field of non-target language use in English classes, including letting pupils use their whole linguistic repertoire even though the teacher does not know all of the languages. In addition, it hopes to open up discussions about some of the issues of the Knowledge Promotion 2020, including how it excludes upper secondary school pupils who have had an alternative educational progression (currently 15% of upper secondary school pupils). The lack of adaptation fin expectations for these pupils makes it unfair for them and very challenging for teachers and for pupils to earn a passing grade.