Anomalous low-temperature thermodynamics of QCD in strong magnetic fields
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBrauner, T., Kadam, S. (2017) Anomalous low-temperature thermodynamics of QCD in strong magnetic fields. Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP). 2017(103) . 10.1007/JHEP11(2017)103
The thermodynamics of quantum chromodynamics at low temperatures and in sufficiently strong magnetic fields is governed by neutral pions. We analyze the interacting system of neutral pions and photons at zero baryon chemical potential using effective field theory. As a consequence of the axial anomaly and the external magnetic field, the pions and photons mix with one another. The resulting spectrum contains one usual, relativistic photon state, and two nonrelativistic modes, one of which is gapless and the other gapped. Furthermore, we calculate the leading, one-loop contribution to the pressure of the system. In the chiral limit, a closed analytic expression for the pressure exists, which features an unusual scaling with temperature and magnetic field, T 3 B/f π , at low temperatures, T ≪ B/f π . Finally, we determine the pion decay rate as a function of the magnetic field at the tree level. The result is affected by a competition of the anisotropic kinematics and the enlarged phase space due to the anomalous mass of the neutral pion. In the chiral limit, the decay rate scales as B 3/f π 5 .