Educating Pre-service Science Teachers ; Promoting PCK development through the use of Lesson Study combined with Content Representation
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- PhD theses (HF-IGIS) 
Original versionEducating Pre-service Science Teachers ; Promoting PCK development through the use of Lesson Study combined with Content Representation by Martin Vogt Juhler, Stavanger : University of Stavanger, 2017 (PhD thesis UiS, no. 340)
Recent research, both internationally and within Norway, has clearly expressed concerns about missing connections between subject-matter knowledge, pedagogical competence and real life practice in schools. This study looks at this problem within the domain of field practice in teacher education, specifically studying pre-service teachers’ planning, teaching and reflection on a physics lesson. The aim was to change the field practice experience, so that it would contribute to the pre-service teachers’ professional development in a better way than what is typically experienced, by specifically combining subject-matter knowledge, pedagogical competence and real life practice. To approach this challenge, a two-year time lagged design experiment was conducted. During the first year (2012), a control group situation was studied. During this year, groups of pre-service teachers were followed as they worked together with their assigned mentor teachers during field practice. These groups prepared and conducted field practice as described in the National Curriculum Regulations.During the second year (2013), an intervention was studied. Similar to the first year, groups of pre-service teachers and their mentors were followed during field practice. However, during this second year, an intervention was introduced consisting of two components. The first was Lesson Study, which is a method for planning, carrying out and reflecting on a research lesson in detail with a learner- and content-centred focus. Lesson Study was used in combination with a second component, Content Representations, which is a systematic tool connecting overall teaching aims with pedagogical prompts. The above data collection was guided by and conducted as part of a larger project called Teachers as Students (TasS). The data was collected through video-recordings of two cycles of planning, conducting, and reflection on a field practice lesson.This way of approaching the research question allowed for a comparison of differences between the two conditions. The difference was assessed using the construct Pedagogical Content Knowledge. This was chosen because someone with well-developed Pedagogical Content Knowledge has a rather deep understanding of the connections between subject-matter knowledge, pedagogical competence, and practice. Furthermore, many current researchers consider Pedagogical Content Knowledge as the developmental objective of the expert teacher. The main research question that guided the investigation was formulated as follows: “How does the use of Lesson Study combined with Content Representation affect pre-service physics teachers’ potential to start developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge during field practice in teacher education?” This main question was examined from different angles that resulted in four articles. The first two articles focus on describing the differences between the control situation and the intervention. The first article looks into the pre-service teachers’ planning of the first research lesson, while the second article looks into the pre-service teachers’ reflections after the first research lesson has been taught. The first two articles present results that show that the pre-service teachers’ focus when planning and reflecting differs in specific ways when comparing the control situation with that of the intervention. Specifically, during the intervention the pre-service teachers had a much greater focus on the pupils and their learning, together with a much greater focus on assessment. These two important findings were subsequently used to delve more deeply into the reasoning and arguments behind these changes. For this reason, the third and fourth articles only present findings from the intervention. Article three specifically addresses the question of how the pre-service teachers plan, conduct and reflect on the teaching of a specific learning aim. Article four addresses how the pre-service teachers planned, conducted and reflected on the assessment of the learning aim that was researched in article three. Both articles three and four present findings that support the findings presented in articles one and two. However, they also nuance these findings by arguing that the results indicate that the pre-service teachers’ understanding of teaching a learning aim and assessment may be superficial and lacking strong connections. Through discussions of the findings from the four articles, the conclusion is that the use of Lesson Study combined with Content Representation may possibly affect pre-service physics teachers’ potential to start developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge during field practice in teacher education. This conclusion is partly based on research results that indicate that this combination, in a better way than what is typically found, may help pre-service teachers to combine theory and practice. However, the results also questioned the depth of the pre-service teachers’ expressed knowledge during the intervention. This indicates that the Lesson Study and Content Representation approach during field practice might not influence the pre-service teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge as deeply as hoped for.
Doktorgradsavhandling i utdanningsvitenskap.
Has partsJuhler, M. V. (2016). The use of lesson study combined with content representation in the planning of physics lessons during field practice to develop pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 27(5), 533–553.
Juhler, M. V. (In review). The use of Lesson Study combined with Content Representation during reflection on a taught field practice lesson to develop Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Nordina.
Juhler, M. V., & Håland, B. (2016). The impact of lesson study and content representation on student teachers’ science teaching. In B. Hallås & G. Grimsæth (Eds.), Lesson Study i en nordisk kontekst (pp. 195–213). Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.
Juhler, M. V. (In press). Assessment of understanding: Student teachers’ preparation, implementation and reflection of a lesson plan for science. Research in Science Education.